Search Results for: drug abuse in the decade of the brain

Drug Abuse In The Decade Of The Brain

Drug Abuse in the Decade of the Brain PDF

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Author: Gabriel G. Nahas
Publisher: IOS Press
ISBN: 9789051993059
Size: 62.14 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 281
View: 6909

Life scientists have declared the 1990s to be the "Decade of the Brain." Undoubtedly the most important organ, the brain is perhaps the least understood. Until recently, the proper methodology for exploring the basic functions of the brain were not available. However, the new era of computer technology brain imaging and molecular biology have given scientists the tools for studying previously hidden mechanisms of the brain which control thinking, emotions, and behavior. Along with this new knowledge, scientists have observed that drugs of abuse can alter these same brain functions in a profound and persistent manner. Drugs of abuse are widely used substances that differ in chemical nature but have a common property-creating dependence. Dependence is characterized by a stereotypical pattern of behavior oriented toward the search, acquisition, and ingestion of drugs of abuse with such frequency and in such quantity as to be harmful. This behavior is beyond the control of reason and will. Studies conducted during the "decade of the brain" or before, show that the clinically observed, dependent behavior induced by drugs of abuse result from neurophysiological and chemical alterations of complex brain mechanisms. These mechanisms involve the production and turnover of the brain neurotransmitters that carry information in the brain neurocircuitry, changes in brain metabolism and circulation, and alterations in the expression of DNA which programs the functions or the neuronal cell. This book describes a number of newly discovered basic brain mechanisms and the alterations caused by drugs of abuse. Contributions by top researchers in fields of radian biology, biochemistry, genetics, and pharmacology examine the new technological improvements for the measurement of brain function, metabolism, blood flow and drug elimination and report changes in brain biochemistry, including DNA expression, as they occur during drug abuse. Physicians and health professionals will benefit from a better understanding of the effects of drugs on the brain which will lead to more effective interventions for prevention and treatment. Highlights include: New knowledge about the brain New methods of investigation Opiates and the brain Marijuana and the brain Cocaine and the brain This book will be of interest to health professionals and program administrators involved in the education and treatment of substance abuse disorders, as well as physicians, nurses, psychiatric social workers, neuroscientists, and pharmacologists.


Drug Abuse In The Decade Of The Brain

Drug Abuse in the Decade of the Brain PDF

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Author: Gabriel G. Nahas
Publisher:
ISBN: 9784274901348
Size: 76.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Brain
Languages : en
Pages : 281
View: 1909



Marihuana And Medicine

Marihuana and Medicine PDF

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Author: Gabriel G. Nahas
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592597106
Size: 15.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 826
View: 6631

Leading physicians and scientists from around the world critically examine the pharmacological and molecular basis of the therapeutic properties of marihuana and its active ingredient, THC. They detail the broad array of marihuana's effects on brain function, the immune system, male and female reproductive functions, and cardiac and pulmonary functions, as well as evaluate its clinical applications in psychiatry, glaucoma, pain management, cancer chemotherapy, and AIDS treatment. Their studies indicate that marihuana persistently impairs the brain and reproductive function, and that marihuana smoke is more toxic and damaging to the lung than tobacco smoke. Marihuana and Medicine's reports of the latest findings on the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of marihuana and of its clinical manifestations will be essential reading for physicians, psychiatrists, pharmacologists, health-care professionals, policy makers, public health officials, and attorneys.


Departments Of Labor Health And Human Services Education And Related Agencies Appropriations For 1994

Departments of Labor  Health and Human Services  Education  and Related Agencies Appropriations for 1994 PDF

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Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 12.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : United States
Languages : en
Pages :
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Departments Of Labor Health And Human Services And Education And Related Agencies Appropriations For Fiscal Year 1994

Departments of Labor  Health and Human Services  and Education  and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1994 PDF

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Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 21.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : United States
Languages : en
Pages :
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Neuropsychedelia

Neuropsychedelia PDF

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Author: Nicolas Langlitz
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520274814
Size: 15.68 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 316
View: 6735

Neuropsychedelia examines the revival of psychedelic science since the "Decade of the Brain." After the breakdown of this previously prospering area of psychopharmacology, and in the wake of clashes between counterculture and establishment in the late 1960s, a new generation of hallucinogen researchers used the hype around the neurosciences in the 1990s to bring psychedelics back into the mainstream of science and society. This book is based on anthropological fieldwork and philosophical reflections on life and work in two laboratories that have played key roles in this development: a human lab in Switzerland and an animal lab in California. It sheds light on the central transnational axis of the resurgence connecting American psychedelic culture with the home country of LSD. In the borderland of science and religion, Neuropsychedelia explores the tensions between the use of hallucinogens to model psychoses and to evoke spiritual experiences in laboratory settings. Its protagonists, including the anthropologist himself, struggle to find a place for the mystical under conditions of late-modern materialism.


Brain Imaging In Substance Abuse

Brain Imaging in Substance Abuse PDF

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Author: Marc J. Kaufman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592590217
Size: 27.37 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 425
View: 6113

The last two decades have seen prodigious growth in the application of brain imaging methods to questions of substance abuse and addiction. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the central effects of drugs provided by preclinical data, relatively little direct evidence was known of how substances of abuse affect the brain and other eNS processes in humans. Brain imaging techniques have allowed access to the human brain and enabled the asking of questions never before imagined. The positron emission tomography (PET) data ofVolkow and her colleagues in the late 1980s, showing the uptake and time course of cocaine's binding in the human brain, revealed for the first time the distinct sites of action of this drug. This work was extremely important because it showed clearly, through imaging a drug in the brain of a living human, that the time course of its action paralleled the behavioral state of "high. " This study marked a turning point in our understanding of drug-brain-behav ior interactions in humans. Many more investigations of drug effects on the structure and function of the human brain were soon to follow, leading to much better insights into brain systems. Brain imaging allowed for the direct assessment of structural and functional anatomy, biology, and chemistry in substance abusers.


Drug Abuse In The Modern World

Drug Abuse in the Modern World PDF

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Author: Gabriel G. Nahas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483140946
Size: 16.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 402
View: 3897

Drug Abuse in the Modern World: A Perspective for the Eighties is a compilation of research papers presented at an international symposium, held at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. The focus of the conference is the assessment of the effects of addictive drugs on an individual, both in mind and body, and the repercussions of its widespread use on society, specifically during the decade of the 80’s. The book is composed of 49 chapters, which were divided into five parts. The first part presents the pharmacological properties of addictive drugs; its effect on brain functions; and changes in the user’s behavior leading to physical and psychic dependence, which when left unmitigated may cause neurological disorders. A paper on pharmacological cure, specifically for tobacco and alcohol abuse, is presented, as well as the effects of marijuana on the reproductive system. The second part examines drug use among children, family relationships, and drug abuse in adults engaged in various professions and undertakings. The third part exposes how a ""pro-drug"" media can be instrumental in the proliferation of drug use in society and also how religion may have also propagated drug use. In contrast, several articles are likewise written that extols the use of media in spreading the detrimental effects of drugs. Part 4 discusses the state of drug abuse in different cultures and societies; the drug trade; and various interventions being implemented by local governments and international organizations to curb the spread of this epidemic. Part 5 is devoted to the status of drug abuse in the 80’s, efforts made, and plans to fight it. The text is a must-read for physicians, pharmacists, educators, social workers, lawyers, law enforcers, sociologists, students, and people who want to get rid of this menace to the human race.


Behavioral Neuroscience Of Drug Addiction

Behavioral Neuroscience of Drug Addiction PDF

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Author: David W. Self
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642030017
Size: 21.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 392
View: 436

Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing mental illness involving severe motivational disturbances and loss of behavioral control leading to personal dev- tation. The disorder af?icts millions of people, often co-occurring with other mental illnesses with enormous social and economic costs to society. Several decades of research have established that drugs of abuse hijack the brain’s natural reward substrates, and that chronic drug use causes aberrant alterations in these rewa- processing systems. Such aberrations may be demonstrated at the cellular, neu- transmitter, and regional levels of information processing using either animal models or neuroimaging in humans following chronic drug exposure. Behaviorally, these neural aberrations manifest as exaggerated, altered or dysfunctional expr- sion of learned behavioral responses related to the pursuit of drug rewards, or to environmental factors that precipitate craving and relapse during periods of drug withdrawal. Current research efforts are aimed at understanding the associative and causal relationships between these neurobiological and behavioral events, such that treatment options will ultimately employ therapeutic amelioration of neural de?cits and restoration of normal brain processing to promote efforts to abstain from further drug use. The Behavioral Neuroscience of Drug Addiction, part of the Springer series on Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, contains scholarly reviews by noted experts on multiple topics from both basic and clinical neuroscience ?elds.